Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods 7th Edition By Mark R. Leary – Test Bank
Multiple Choice Single Select
M/C Question 1
Why is it possible for condition means to differ at the end of an experiment even if the independent variable had no effect?
a) A Type II error has occurred.
b) Error variance has created differences between conditions.
c) A null finding was obtained.
d) The power of the study was low.
M/C Question 2
Researchers use null hypothesis significance testing to
a) understand why null findings were obtained.
b) test whether confounding has occurred.
c) test whether condition means differ more than they would if the difference were due to error variance.
d) separate the effects of the independent from the effects of participant variables.
M/C Question 3
The null hypothesis states that
a) null findings will not be obtained.
b) there is no error variance in the data.
c) differences between conditions will be due only to the independent variable.
d) the independent variable did not have an effect.
M/C Question 4
If statistical analyses show that the difference between condition means is larger than would be expected on the basis of error variance alone, a researcher will
a) accept the null hypothesis.
b) reject the null hypothesis.
c) fail to reject the null hypothesis.
d) reject the experimental hypothesis.
M/C Question 5
Researchers reject the null hypothesis when
a) statistical analyses showed that the p-value is large.
b) the difference between condition means is larger than would be expected on the basis of error variance alone.
c) the effect size is smaller than .05.
d) they want to avoid a Type I error.
M/C Question 6
A Type I error can occur only when a researcher
a) accepts the null hypothesis.
b) rejects the null hypothesis.
c) fails to reject the null hypothesis.
d) rejects the experimental hypothesis.
M/C Question 7
Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false is
b) Type I error.
c) Type II error.
M/C Question 8
A Type I error occurs when a researcher
a) rejects a null hypothesis that is false.
b) fails to reject a null hypothesis that is false.
c) accepts a null hypothesis that is true.
d) rejects a null hypothesis that is true.
M/C Question 9
The probability that a researcher is willing to make a Type I error is
a) the alpha-level.
d) the confidence interval.
M/C Question 10
The alpha-level that researchers generally use is designed to ensure Type I errors occur on less than _____ of statistical decisions.