Foundations Of Nursing In The Community 3rd Edition By Stanhope Lancaster – Test Bank
Chapter 11: Using Health Education and Group Process in the Community
1. If the nurse teaches solely by lecturing to clients, what part of the education process is missing?
Educators should include participation. (This is one of the six principles of education.) Merely sitting and listening to someone lecture are not as effective as discussion, even when the presentation is stimulating, interesting, and dynamic.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 191 and 195
2. A member of a community weight-loss group has maintained a healthy weight for 2 years through healthy eating and daily exercise. At which step of the affective domain is this participant?
Steps in the affective domain have the learner doing the following in this sequence: (1) knowledge: receives the information; (2) comprehension: responds to what is being taught; (3) application: values the information; (4) analysis: makes sense of the information; (5) synthesis: organizes the information; (6) evaluation: adopts behaviors consistent with the new values. In this example, the individual has adopted the behavior and this has resulted in the ability to maintain the value of a healthy weight.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 192
3. A nurse just finished teaching breast self-examination to a large group of women at a professional conference. During the session, she distributed literature and used culturally appropriate visual aids. However, the session was not as effective as it could have been. What is the most important thing the nurse forgot to include?
a. Lots of time for audience members to ask questions and clarify the information
b. An explanation of why culturally appropriate images are more acceptable
c. The opportunity for the women to practice what they learned
d. The use of simple language instead of printed material in case the women could not read
The learner must have opportunities to practice the new skills being learned. Provide practice sessions during the program because many people may not have the time, facilities, motivation, and/or support to practice at home what they have learned.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 192
4. A nurse planned a superb presentation on the latest trends in disaster planning for the senior nursing students at the local college. However, when the nurse began to share knowledge, the students were talking to one another and essentially ignoring the nurse. What should the nurse do?
a. Ask the students why they are being so rude
b. Explain why the information is crucial to their current clinical practice
c. Nothing; let the instructor of the course handle the problem
d. Tell a risqué joke to get the students’ attention
Before learning can take place, you need to gain the learner’s attention. One way to do this is by convincing the learner that the information about to be presented is important and beneficial to them personally.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 193
5. A nurse explained to a family exactly how to care for their family member, who had just been discharged home from the hospital. When the nurse visited the family 3 days later, it was apparent that neither the patient nor the family had completed certain activities since the previous visit. What is the most probable explanation?
a. Cultural issues interfered with family’s ability to listen.
b. Emotional stress limited the information the family could absorb.
c. The family hadn’t seen any reason to engage in the activities.
d. The nurse hadn’t reinforced teaching with written literature repeating the information.
Although any of the answers could be correct, the most probable cause is the stress of illness and hospitalization. Both emotional stress and physical illness may limit the amount of information that learners can absorb.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 193
6. When is the optimal time for the nurse educator to elicit feedback from program participants?
a. At the beginning of the program
b. At the program midpoint
c. Immediately following program completion
d. Throughout the program
Not only should learners receive feedback, but the educator should also elicit feedback from learners throughout the educational process. On the basis of the feedback that the educator receives from learners, the implementation and presentation of the educational program can be modified.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 195
7. A nurse invited all the teenagers who were newly diagnosed with diabetes to a group meeting to discuss issues they all had in common. One teenager replied, “I don’t know if I want to share all the problems I’m having with strangers.” What is the best nurse response?
a. “Don’t share anything with anyone until you’re comfortable doing so.”
b. “I can understand what you are saying.”
c. “No one will require you to do anything you don’t want to do.”
d. “The purpose of the group is to have a safe place to share problems with others who may be having similar problems.”
All the responses are empathetic and supportive. However, during the first phase, potential participants do not know whether they can trust one another. The primary task of the leader at this point is to clarify the purpose. Even though a statement such as “Don’t share anything until you’re comfortable” is supportive, the response explaining that “the purpose is to have a safe place” both recognizes what was said and clarifies the purpose of the group.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: p. 196
8. A nurse is meeting to discuss problems and solutions with a group of teenagers who have been newly diagnosed with diabetes. One teenager states “My mom found this particular brand of popcorn that has only 15 carbohydrates in the whole giant bag.” What group purpose is being served by the teenager’s statement?
a. Maintenance function of encouraging everyone to continue the discussion
b. Maintenance function of helping everyone feel comfortable talking about food
c. Task function of resolving problems about what to nibble during movies
d. Task function of sharing information and resources
A task function is anything a member does that deliberately contributes to the group’s purpose. Members with task-directed abilities are attractive to the group. These traits include strong problem-solving skills, access to material resources, and skills in directing. The teenager’s statement shared information about a good resource for the group.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 197
9. A nurse established an ongoing group meeting of teenagers with diabetes. In the early stages, the nurse was very directive in arranging location, providing low-carbohydrate drinks and snacks, steering the discussion, and trying to meet all the teenagers’ needs. After the group had been meeting for about 3 months, the nurse noticed that the group members no longer simply accepted everything the nurse suggested. Instead, the teenagers began making decisions themselves, and eventually, the nurse no longer controlled the group. What most likely happened to cause this shift?
a. The group became cohesive enough to share leadership tasks.
b. Teenagers don’t like feeling dependent on adults with power.
c. Teenagers often rebel against adult authority.
d. The nurse was overwhelmed and lost control of task process.
In the beginning, the nurse used an authoritarian style because the nurse was responsible for the group direction. However, as the group matured, continuing an authoritarian style would have resulted in low morale and lack of cohesion. After a group is well established, nurses may best facilitate leadership by relinquishing central control and encouraging group members themselves to determine the norms for their group.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: p. 199
10. A group of teenagers with diabetes become upset and angry because they cannot agree on whether or not to have meetings during summer vacation. Which of the following should the nurse do to be effective in helping the teenagers resolve the conflict?
a. Admit that it is difficult for everyone to agree on everything; then ask whether the group can try to decide how to agree on the issue and ask whether group members think there are other issues involved.
b. Assume adult authority and announce that meetings will be suspended until fall.
c. Recognize that most of the teenagers want to have the meetings, but two are being stubborn; ask the two deviant members to leave the group.
d. Suggest that the group avoid discussing it further but rather think about it over the next week and try to discuss the situation more rationally next week.
When you respond to conflict by avoiding (option 4), forcing with power (option 2), capitulating, or excluding some members (option 3), the behavior fails to satisfy the concerns of those involved. Open communication and recognition that conflict is inevitable may allow the group to focus on a procedure for fairly resolving the conflict.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: pp. 202-203