Chapter 11: Using Health Education and Groups in the Community
1. A member of a community weight-loss group has maintained a healthy weight for 2 years through healthy eating and daily exercise. Which of the following steps of the affective domain is this participant demonstrating?
Steps in the affective domain have the learner doing the following in this sequence: (1) knowledge: receives the information; (2) comprehension: responds to what is being taught; (3) application: values the information; (4) analysis: makes sense of the information; (5) synthesis: organizes the information; (6) evaluation: adopts behaviors consistent with the new values. In this example, the individual has adopted the behavior and this has resulted in the ability to maintain the value of a healthy weight.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 191
2. A nurse just finished teaching breast self-examination to a large group of women at a professional conference. During the session, she distributed literature and used culturally appropriate visual aids. However, the session was not as effective as it could have been. Which of the following was the most important thing omitted by the nurse?
a. Time for audience members to ask questions and clarify the information
b. Explanation of why culturally appropriate images are more acceptable
c. Opportunity for the women to practice what they learned
d. Use of simple language instead of printed material
The learner must have opportunities to practice the new skills being learned. Provide practice sessions during the program because many people may not have the time, facilities, motivation, and/or support to practice at home what they have learned.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 191
3. A nurse is providing an educational program about testicular self-examination (TSE). Which of the following would be the best learning objective for this program?
a. Each participant will state why TSE is important and explain how to do it.
b. Each participant will describe how to do TSE and discuss the dangers of testicular cancer.
c. 90% of the men will correctly demonstrate testicular self-examination.
d. 100% of the men will do a testicular examination correctly on a model.
If the goal is to learn TSE, the best goal is for the person to be able to do TSE correctly. Being able to state why it is important is a helpful first step, as is practice on a model, but to be sure the person can really do the procedure, you need to allow practice time and feedback until the person can demonstrate the procedure properly.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: pp. 191, 192-193
4. A nurse planned a presentation about the latest trends in disaster planning for the senior nursing students at the local college. However, when the nurse began to share the information, the students were talking to one another and essentially ignoring the nurse. Which of the following actions should be taken by the nurse?
a. Ask the students why they are being so rude.
b. Explain why the information is crucial to their current clinical practice.
c. Nothing; let the instructor of the course handle the problem.
d. Tell a joke to get the students’ attention.
Before learning can take place, you need to gain the learner’s attention. One way to do this is by convincing the learner that the information about to be presented is important and beneficial to them personally.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: pp. 194-195
5. A nurse is using the technique of motivational interviewing when working with a client. Which of the following statements by the client indicates the client is ready to make the change?
a. “I should change.”
b. “I am willing to change.”
c. “It’s important to change.”
d. “I want to change.”
Motivational interviewing uses the term “change talk” to refer to statements by the client that he or she is motivated and willing to make change. An easy to use mnemonic is “DARN-CAT” which refers to desire, ability, reason, need, activation, commitment, and taking steps. “I am willing to change” demonstrates activation, a client who is ready, prepared, and willing to make the change. The other statements refer to the client who is preparing to make the change, but not yet ready to implement the change.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 195
6. A nurse uses lecturing as the primary method of educating clients. Which part of the education process is missing?
Educators should include participation. (This is one of the six principles of education.) Merely sitting and listening to someone lecture are not as effective as discussion, even when the presentation is stimulating, interesting, and dynamic.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: pp. 198, 207
7. The nurse gives a very informative and engaging presentation and then gives everyone in the audience a handout that outlines the presentation. Later, the nurse discovers that many of the handouts were thrown away before the audience left the building. Which of the following educational principles has the nurse forgotten?
a. Audiences expect PowerPoint or video presentations, not lectures.
b. Many Americans do not have a high reading level.
c. People want photographs and images, not wordy outlines.
d. The nurse gave them too much information too fast for them to want to cope with it all.
Although visual images are certainly helpful, this does not explain why the handouts were discarded. Most health information is printed at a tenth-grade reading level—yet the average U.S. adult reads at the eighth-grade level and 40% of adults over age 65 read below the fifth-grade level. If people cannot read or understand the material, they discard it.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: pp. 198-199
8. Which of the following statements regarding the Health Belief Model is accurate?
a. Cues to action are an important component of the model.
b. Multiple methods of education should be used when implementing this model.
c. The first stage experienced in this model is the pre-contemplation stage.
d. To successfully implement this model, ongoing maintenance of the behavior must be considered.
The Health Belief Model includes six components that attempt to answer the question of what motivates an individual to do something. These components are perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. The pre-contemplation stage is part of the Transtheoretical Model. Maintenance is part of the Precaution Adoption Process Model.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: p. 199
9. A nurse is planning an educational program about cardiovascular disease. Which of the following would be the optimal time for the nurse to elicit feedback from program participants?
a. At the beginning of the program
b. At the program midpoint
c. Immediately following program completion
d. Throughout the program
Not only should learners receive feedback, but the educator should also elicit feedback from learners throughout the educational process. On the basis of the feedback that the educator receives from learners, the implementation and presentation of the educational program can be modified.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 200
10. When evaluating an educational program, the nurse discovers that only 25% of community members met the learning objectives. Which of the following parts of the program should be improved?
Ultimately, the educator is responsible for the success or failure of the educational process and the development of learner knowledge, skills, and abilities. The educator determines how content can be tailored to the learner. The educator determines the objectives. If evaluation reveals that the learning objectives are not being met, the nurse must determine why the instruction is not effective. The educator is responsible for presenting the material creatively and meaningfully in new ways to increase learner retention and ability to apply the new knowledge.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 201