Young Offenders And Youth Justice A Century After The Fact, 4th Edition By Sandra – Test Bank
Chapter 11: Perpetuating Social Injustice
Websites for Additional Information
http://www.turtleisland.org/news/absenuayrpt.pdf – a paper on reform for Aboriginal youth urban programming.
- Which of the following was identified as a problem in the early 1990s by a Manitoba Aboriginal Justice inquiry and is still an ongoing issue today?
- overuse of custody for Aboriginal youth
- discriminatory treatment of Aboriginal youth by correctional staff
- detention of Aboriginal youth separately from adults in remote locations
- high rates of alcohol and substance abuse among incarcerated Aboriginal youth
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 338–339 BLM: Remember
- Which of the following juvenile justice legislation(s) acknowledged that Aboriginal youth, girls, and minority youths differ from Euro-Canadian boys?
- YOA and YCJA
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 338 BLM: Remember
- According to the text, which of the following has put pressure on the Canadian government to continue addressing life opportunity gaps between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children?
- Justice critic, Vic Toews
- Toronto Native Canadian Centre
- Manitoba Aboriginal Justice Committee
- The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 339–340 BLM: Remember
- According to Nuffield (2003), which of the following has been cited as a reason for the overuse of incarceration among Aboriginal youth?
- miscarriages of justice
- increase in violent offences committed by Aboriginal youth
- no alternative sanctions available
- lack of facilities and programming in Aboriginal communities
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 341–342 BLM: Remember
- In section 718.2(e) of the Criminal Code, introduced in 1996, judges are directed to consider alternatives to prison for Aboriginal offenders. To whom does this apply?
- adults only
- youth only
- youth under 16
- youths and adults
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 339 BLM:
- Which of the following was the outcome of the Supreme Court’s decision in R. v. Gladue?
- It established once and for all that to treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders differently is to discriminate.
- It established that to treat Aboriginal offenders fairly, it is necessary to take into account their difference from non-Aboriginal offenders.
- It established that to take into account the unique circumstances surrounding Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders is to be unfair to non-Aboriginal people.
- It established that Aboriginal offenders should not be treated any differently under the law than non-Aboriginal offenders.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 342 BLM: Remember
- Which one of the following arguments was by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Task Force on Youth Justice?
- girls’ small numbers do not warrant specialized facilities and programming
- gender-neutral programs are designed to meet the needs of both boys and girls
- girls’ offences are similar to boys’ offences and they should be treated the same
- alternative programs and services for girls are practical from a cost benefit basis
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 351 BLM: Remember
- According to research conducted in British Columbia, for which of the following offences are girls most likely to be serving time?
- non-violent offences
- breach offences
- violent offences
- drug offences
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 350 BLM: Remember
- According to the text, which group often expresses paternalistic decision-making when it comes to female offenders?
- police officers
- youth workers
- probation officers
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 352–353 BLM: Remember
- According to the text, which of the following is considered one of the most important programming needs for girls involved with the justice system?
- family therapy
- substance abuse counseling
- anger management training
- financial and independence training
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 355 BLM: Remember